Unit 803: Strategic Planning for Cross Border and Global Organisations

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Unit code: L/506/9132 NQF level: 8

GLH: 80

Level 8 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Assignment Brief

Unit 803– Strategic Planning for Cross Border and Global Organisations

Learners are required to complete all tasks. 1.1 Evaluate the restraints and constraints on the integration of inter-organisational strategy

Assignment Guidelines

All work must be submitted in a single electronic document (.doc file). This should go to the tutor and Centre Manager/Programme Director, plus one hard copy posted to the Centre Manager.

The assignment must be the Learner’s own work and not copies of theories or models. Direct quotes should be kept to a minimum, and shown in inverted commas. Models described and other quotes used must be properly attributed and referenced as appropriate. Learners must acknowledge or reference any sources that have been used to complete the assignment, listing reference material and web sites used.

Learners are encouraged to produce a reflective statement of no more than 300 words (which does not count towards the final word count), describing the value and knowledge gained from undertaking this assignment. The reflective statement is not assessed, however it encourages you to review the value and application of your learning.

Overall word count guide: 2500 - 4500

Plagiarism and Collusion

In submitting the assignment Learner’s must complete a statement of authenticity confirming that the work submitted for all tasks is their own. The statement should also include the word count.

Plagiarism and collusion are treated very seriously. Plagiarism involves presenting work, excerpts, ideas or passages of another author without appropriate referencing and attribution. Collusion occurs when two or more learners submit work which is so alike in ideas, content, wording and/or structure that the similarity goes beyond what might have been mere coincidence.

Appendices

Separate Appendices should not be used. Any use of tables, graphs, diagrams, Gantt chart and flowcharts etc. that support the main report should be incorporated into the back of the assignment report that is submitted. Any published secondary information such as annual reports and company literature, should be referenced in the main text of the assignment but not included. 

Confidentiality

Where a Learner is using organisational information that deals with sensitive material or issues, they must seek the advice and permission from that organisation about its inclusion. Where confidentiality is an issue, Learners are advised to anonymise their assignment report so that it cannot be attributed to that particular organisation.

Word Count Policy

In total, the assignment report should be between 2500 - 4500 words. Learners must comply with the required word count, within a margin of +10%.These rules exclude the index (if used), headings and information contained within references and bibliographies. When an assessment task requires learners to produce presentation slides with supporting notes, the word count applies to the supporting notes only.

Referencing and Professionalism

A professional approach to work is expected from all learners. Learners must therefore identify and acknowledge ALL sources/methodologies/applications used. The learner must use an appropriate referencing system to achieve this. Marks are not awarded for the use of English, however the learner must express ideas clearly and ensure that appropriate terminology is used to convey accuracy in meaning.

Submission of Assignments

All work to be submitted on the due date as per Centre advice.

All work must be submitted in a single electronic document (.doc file). This should go to the tutor and Centre Manager/Programme Director, plus one hard copy posted to the Centre Manager.

Introduction

The unit examines the range of influences and impacts on cross border or global organisations and how that contributes to successful strategy formulation and the management of risk.

Scenario

Learners may use their own employment context, or that of another organisation with which they are very familiar, to base their assignment. A scenario of choice may also be discussed with your tutor, or provided by your tutor on request.

Task 1

Chose an organisation you have worked for or know well and evaluate the restraints and constraints on the integration of inter-organisational strategy also Identifying and assessing the respective contributions of participating organisations and administrations to the development and integration of inter-organisational strategy.

You also need to analyse the separate components of the planning and implementation process and the impact of tensions between them on the inter-organisational strategy and its implement; and assess the impact of the inherent and respective power and status of the participating organisations and administrations on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation.

Learning outcome

  1. Be able to analyse the planning and implementation of existing inter-organisational strategies

Assessment criteria: The learner can:

1.1 Evaluate the restraints and constraints on the integration of inter-organisational strategy

1.2 Identify and assess the respective contributions of participating organisations and administrations to the development and integration of inter-organisational strategy

1.3 Analyse the separate components of the planning and implementation process and the impact of tensions between them on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation

1.4 Assess the impact of the inherent and respective power and status of the participating organisations and administrations on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation.

Good Practice

In evaluating the restraints and constraints on the integration of inter-organisational strategy you could reference the Theory of Constraints that include cultural, political and social restraints. You could also review current literature that explores how organisations in a given sector have approached the various constraints and restraints both in the national and international context. In addressing 1.2 you are required to identify and assess the respective contributions of participating organisations and administrations to the development and integration of inter-organisational strategy. In answering this criterion you could explore the relevance of the inter-organisational communications channels including how policy is cascaded from the top and how ideas and contributions flow from the bottom. You could make reference to how “intelligence gathering” flows from the inter-organisational business units to inform the overall policy of the organisation. In analysing the separate components of the planning and implementation process and the impact of tensions between them on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation you could outline the organisation’s approach to strategic planning and the impact of national norms and leadership styles. In assessing the impact of the inherent and respective power and status of the participating organisations and administrations on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation your answer could draw upon research relating to how power and status of organisations has an effect on how strategy is developed and subsequently implemented including key stakeholders and their sources of:

  • motivation
  • control
  • knowledge
  • legitimacy.

Word guide: 850 to 1200 words excluding tables, diagrams and references Task 2

Building on your answer to Task 1 critically compare and evaluate the missions, goals, roles, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of cross border partners and competitor organisations and administrations including critically compare and evaluate theories and methods of strategy formulation used in cross border partner organisations and administrations. You also need to critically evaluate how effectively strategies link policy objectives, goals and aspirations to operational outcomes for cross border partners; identify, and assess the impact of, methods for managing risks and opportunities in the strategy

Learning outcome

  1. Be able to analyse the theories and methods of strategy formulation used

Assessment criteria: The learner can

2.1 Critically compare and evaluate the missions, goals, roles, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of cross border partners and competitor organisations and administrations

2.2 Critically compare and evaluate theories and methods of strategy formulation used in cross border partner organisations and administrations

2.3 Critically evaluate how effectively strategies link policy objectives, goals and aspirations to operational outcomes for cross border partners

2.4 Identify, and assess the impact of, methods for managing risks and opportunities in the strategy

Good Practice

In comparing and evaluating the missions, goals, roles, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of partner and competitor organisations and administrations you would need to challenge the relevance of this approach to strategy within a number of organisations. This could be a chosen organisation and those within a similar sector both nationally and internationally. When comparing and evaluating and evaluate theories and methods of strategy formulation used in partner organisations and administrations. You could refer to and comment on each of the following approaches to strategy formulation. 

In evaluating how effectively strategies link policy objectives, goals and aspirations to operational outcomes you are asked to evaluate how effective strategies link policy objectives, goals and aspirations to operational outcomes. You could reference approaches such as Beer’s VSM and in particular the relevance and effectiveness of the communications and information channels linking S5 (policy setting and direction) with systems S1 (operational units). You might further explore that communications and information flow channels must have requisite variety.

In your response you could also comment on the role of variety engineering the role of variety attenuators and amplifiers applied to the communications channels and could explain the role of S3 the audit process with respect to maintaining the effectiveness of communications channels to link policy objectives, goals and aspirations to operational outcomes (S1)

In identifying and assessing the impact of methods for managing risks and opportunities in the strategy your answer could start with identifying the types of risk impacting a national or international organisation. For example:

  • Financial and liquidity risk
  • Operational risks
  • Technical risks
  • Market risks
  • Supplier and customer risks
  • Credit risks

Finally a good answer would reflect on the analysis and evaluation across new, pubic stakeholder’s motivations, beliefs and opinions and draw in where possible to views of experts in the field

Word guide: 850 to 1200 words excluding tables, diagrams and references Task 3

Building on your answer to tasks 2 and 3 critically assess the means of obtaining, co-ordinating, measuring and analysing strategic intelligence evaluate and interpret strategic intelligence and determine measures of confidence in that intelligence to inform the development, implementation and review of policy and strategy for cross border and global organisations. You also need to explain how strategic intelligence has a key influence in cross border and global organisational planning and decision-making and also critically examine the concept of ‘acceptable risk’ associated with gathering and using of strategic intelligence

Learning outcome

  1. Be able to evaluate the role and impact of strategic intelligence

Assessment criteria: The learner can

3.1 Critically assess the means of obtaining, co-ordinating, measuring and analysing strategic intelligence

3.2 Critically evaluate and interpret strategic intelligence and determine measures of confidence in that intelligence to inform the development, implementation and review of policy and strategy for cross border and global organisations

3.3 Explain how strategic intelligence has a key influence in cross border and global organisational planning and decision-making

3.4 Critically examine the concept of ‘acceptable risk’ associated with gathering and using of strategic intelligence

Good Practice

When assessing the means of obtaining, co-ordinating, measuring and analysing strategic intelligence a full answer could explore role of the use “big data” across national and international organisations including the identification of a common of KPIs to be used across an organisation. A full answer could also explore how the intelligence and data gathering activities are undertaken at SBU level to inform local policy and how these are communicated and used to inform the overarching organisational policy.

You might also explore how “big data” is explored using structured questioning as a basis for strategic intelligence. Alternatively, a full answer could also explore the work Edward Tufte and the structured and unstructured data (Diagnosis) to identify patterns and weak signals. A full answer could also comment on the cultural differences with an organisation of using analytical or diagnostic methods. Some reference might also be made to Russell Ackoff and the fundamental difference between diagnosis and analysis. You could reference writers such as Ackoff who notes that no amount of analysis will right the wrong thing including his view of analysis and diagnosis. This dichotomy represents a major cultural difference in the way organisations deal with and Interpret strategic intelligence and hence their confidence in that intelligence to inform the development, implementation and review of inter-organisational policy and strategy and so is only one approach that could be used.

You might also explore two differing views, one strategic intelligence based on data collection and detailed analysis and another, strategic intelligence based on holism, identifying weak signals and emergence. These two views require different management competences and behaviours. A full answer might argue these two views in context of a national and international organisation and their culture and norms.

In examining the concept of “acceptable risk” associated with the gathering and use of strategic data and intelligence a full answer could summarise the pros and cons associated with Frequentist versus Bayesian statistics. Frequentist statistics assumes data is normally distributed and that “acceptable risks” falls within agreed and predefined control limits, for example, +/- 2 to 3 standard deviations wither side of the norm.

Alternatively, Bayesian statistic deals with probabilities of events (Black Swans). It is not expected that a full answer would described the detailed mathematics of the two approaches but simply summarising the main differences and in particular how these two approaches are dealt with or not within an organisation.

You should explore what is “acceptable risk” in context of an organisations history and evolution noting that organisations don’t have any memory.

Word guide: 850 to 1200 words excluding tables, diagrams and references Task 4

Building on your responses to the previous tasks critically evaluate the concepts of culture, character, ethos, beliefs, attitudes and needs and how they impact on the development and management of cross border organisational alliances and coalitions. You also need to critically assess the influence of domestic, national and multi-national contexts on the development and implementation of cross border and global organisational policy and strategy and also critically analyse the body of knowledge on cultural differences to support proposals for innovative ways of mitigating or enhancing the impact of cultural differences on cross border or global organisational policy and strategy

Learning outcome

  1. Be able understand and utilise the impact of cultural differences based on research.

Assessment criteria: The learner can

4.1 Critically evaluate the concepts of culture, character, ethos, beliefs, attitudes and needs and how they impact on the development and management of cross border organisational alliances and coalitions

4.2 Critically assess the influence of domestic, national and multi-national contexts on the development and implementation of cross border and global organisational policy and strategy

4.3 Critically analyse the body of knowledge on cultural differences to support proposals for innovative ways of mitigating or enhancing the impact of cultural differences on cross border or global organisational policy and strategy.

Good Practice

When evaluating the concepts of culture, character, ethos, beliefs, attitudes and needs and how they impact on the development and management of inter-organisational alliances and coalitions you could draw upon the work of Hofstede and national cultural differences. This could also include some comments on values, beliefs, religions and how these impact on Mega Marketing ideas (Kotler). A full answer could also draw upon the use of fairy stories and metaphors which give an indication of national values and beliefs. In assessing the influence of domestic, national and multi-national contexts on the development and implementation of inter-organisational policy and strategy. Your answer could draw upon the response to assessment criteria 4.1 and the use of “fairy stories” and metaphors to identify the underlying beliefs and values of domestic, national and multi-national organisations including norms and values.

A full answer could also draw upon the impact of recent histories which impact domestic, national and multi-national development and implementation of inter-organisational policy and strategy, for example, WWII, The Long March in China, The Cuban and French revolutions, the end of apartheid in South Africa, local wars for drugs, oil and water resources. In analysing data information about cultural differences to propose innovative ways of mitigating or enhancing the impact of cultural differences on inter-organisational policy and strategy you should refer to other sections of this report and use the information in for example,

4.2 and make an analysis of how this informs policy and strategy in particular policy cascade across organisational boundaries.

Word guide: 850 to 1200 words excluding tables, diagrams and references

Aim

The unit examines the range of influences and impacts on cross border or global organisations and how that contributes to successful strategy formulation and the management of risk.

QF 803 Strategic Planning for Cross Border and Global Organisations

Learning Outcomes

Assessment Criteria

1. Be able to analyse the planning and implementation of existing inter- organisational strategies

1.1 Evaluate the restraints and constraints on the integration of inter-organisational strategy

1.2 Identify and assess the respective contributions of participating organisations and administrations to the development and integration of inter-organisational strategy

1.3 Analyse the separate components of the planning and implementation process and the impact of tensions between them on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation

1.4 Assess the impact of the inherent and respective power and status of the participating organisations and administrations on the inter-organisational strategy and its implementation

2. Be able to analyse the theories and methods of strategy formulation used

2.1 Critically compare and evaluate the missions, goals, roles, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of cross border partners and competitor organisations and administrations

2.3 Critically compare and evaluate theories and methods of strategy formulation used in cross border partner organisations and administrations

2.4 Critically evaluate how effectively strategies link policy objectives, goals and aspirations to operational outcomes for cross border partners

2.5 Identify, and assess the impact of, methods for managing risks and opportunities in the strategy

3. Be able to evaluate the role and impact of strategic intelligence

3.1 Critically assess the means of obtaining, co-ordinating, measuring and analysing strategic intelligence

3.2 Critically evaluate and interpret strategic intelligence and determine measures of confidence in that intelligence to inform the development, implementation and review of policy and strategy for cross border and global organisations

3.3 Explain how strategic intelligence has a key influence in cross border and global organisational planning and decision-making

3.4 Critically examine the concept of ‘acceptable risk’ associated with gathering and using of strategic intelligence

 

3.5 Critically evaluate the effectiveness of risk theories and models used in organisational strategic planning

4. Be able understand and utilise the impact of cultural differences based on research

4.1 Critically evaluate the concepts of culture, character, ethos, beliefs, attitudes and needs and how they impact on the development and management of cross border organisational alliances and coalitions

4.2 Critically assess the influence of domestic, national and multi- national contexts on the development and implementation of cross border and global organisational policy and strategy

4.3 Critically analyse the body of knowledge on cultural differences to support proposals for innovative ways of mitigating or enhancing the impact of cultural differences on cross border or global organisational policy and strategy.

Unit 803: Strategic Planning for Cross Border and Global Organisations

Indicative Content In this unit learners will come across a number of models, concepts and ideas which can be used to help in exploring how strategic planning in cross border and global organisations can be effective. Strategic planning in cross border and global organisations involves a complex interaction between a number of significant factors including:

• Leadership and managementstyles

• Organisational knowledge

• Organisational history and experience

• Culture: individual, organisational and country, values and beliefs (which was explored in QF 806), Culture and its impact on strategy

• Strategic planning methods andapproaches

• Strategic planning processes

• Stakeholders and risks. Suggested Resources

• Muodon A and PERKINS, Organisational Behaviour, KoganPage

• Kew and Stredwick, Business Environment, Managing in a Strategic Context, CIPD

• Kew and Stredwick, Human resource Management in a Business Context,CIPD QUALIFI Level 8 Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership Specification January 2021 29

• Brooks, Weatherston, Wilkinson, The international Business Environment, FTPrentice Hall

• De Wit, B., (2004) Strategy-Process, Content, Context: An International Perspective. 3rd ed. London: Thomson

• Stacey, R., (2011) Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics: The Challenge of Complexity to Ways of Thinking about Organisations. 6th ed. Harlow, England, New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Unit 803: Strategic Planning for Cross Border and Global Organisations

• Beer, the brain of thefirm

• Hackley, C. (2003) Doing Research Projects in Marketing, Management and Consumer Research, London: Routledge.

• Keegan, S. (2009) Qualitative Research: Good Decision Making Through Understanding People, Cultures and Markets (Market Research in Practice), London:Kogan Page.

• Malhotra, N.K. & Birks, D.F. (2007) Marketing Research an Applied Approach, 3ed., London: Pearson Education Ltd

• SAVAGE, The Flaw of Averages, AMAZON

• STANDAGE, T. (ed) (2005) The future of technology: how to adapt and prosper. London: Economist Books.

• Brand S, Disruptive Technologies

• Theory practice and constraints of product based or competitive advantage approachesto strategy formulation. Porter (1980). Resource based theory of thefirm. Hamel G. Parhalad C.K. Blackler. (1995). Wernerfelt. (1995).

Unit 803: Strategic Planning for Cross Border and Global Organisations


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