The assignment comprises of an essay of 3,000 words in which you will compare different theories of substance use and misuse of a chosen psychoactive substance and relate them to the social and cultural context

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Assessment task: 

Define and evaluate models / theories of addiction 

Weighting: 80%

Word count: 3000 words

Assessment criteria:

These express the criteria against which achievement of the learning outcomes will be assessed

Assessment briefing

The assignment comprises of an essay of 3,000 words in which you will compare different theories of substance use and misuse of a chosen psychoactive substance and relate them to the social and cultural context.

To help you structure your essay you should follow the points below:

  • Select a substance (ALCOHOL.)
  • Briefly give account of the chosen substance (ALCOHOL) and outline it using social, historical, and/or cultural context.
  • Define the different concepts and explanations regarding; use, problem use and dependence for the chosen substance.
  • Discuss national patterns and trends regarding the substance, please use institutional reports to correctly describe the prevalence in the essay (make sure that at level 6 UK prevalence statistic are present in the essay with a little criticism towards the measure used).
  • Choose 3 theories of addiction describe and evaluate them (IMPORTANT: you must use empirical evidence appropriately and support its influence or efficacy in explaining addiction). Thereafter, compare the theories evaluated with the WHO Model of Dependence: Bio-psycho-social model (this will be your third theory in the assignment, make sure you describe what the WHO Biopsychosocial model is, and use it to highlight the complexity of addiction through synergy of the different paradigms discussed).
  • Discuss the implications for practice. If you are unable to apply this to practice due to lack of experience you can discuss what each model adds to understanding of ‘Addiction’ in the field. Furthermore, you may want to highlight the synergy of the theories. This may be used to explain how different models and theories of addiction support and explain different aspects (i.e. they all add to our current understanding of addiction but no particular theory in isolation can comprehensively explain addiction). 

Structure for the essay 3000 word count

Section 1: Introduction; first introduce the essay and then add the aims of the essay at the end of the paragraph (short and concise paragraph).

Section 2: Name the Drug (ALCOHOL) and its history (very brief one paragraph)

Section 3: The Drug and how its work (again very brief use: Understanding Drugs and Behaviour: https://uwl.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.q=nderstanding+Drugs+and+Behaviour&op=Search#!/search?ho=t&l=en-UK&q=Understanding%20Drugs%20and%20Behaviour)

Section 4: Prevalence of the drug from reports (NHS, alcohol: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/statistics-on-alcohol/2020, Government: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/alcohol-and-drug-statistics, NHS other drugs: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/statistics-on-drug-misuse)

Section 5: Lead into the importance of understanding addiction and that in the next portion of the essay you will write about 2 theories of addiction, evidence them and then discuss the implications of the BPS framework as well as highlight how those theories fit into the frame work.

Section 6: Theory 1 (describe), give evidence from research (primary source). Outline one key piece clearly and then you can add other to support without writing out the extra information on method used in the research etc.

Section 7: Theory 2 (describe), give evidence from research (primary source). Outline one key piece clearly and then you can add other to support without writing out the extra information on method used in the research etc.

Section 8: Explain the Bio-Psycho-Social framework and where the theories cover fit in (basically they explain biological function in relation to maintenance etc, they explain the social or environmental aspect). Example: Biological theory is important to explain that there is a biological component to addiction and the mechanics of how it works in terms augmenting pathways and cause issues of motivation, frontal control and therefore choice to take as well as difficulty to stop (compulsion, craving etc). However, the biological model does not explain the initiation of the substance use in this essay. Genetics in part suggest there are influences or vulnerability when using a drug but it is not clear how the person seeks out the drug. In regard to this Social Learning theory covered in the essay highlights how the environment; which consists of peers, family, society and media in relation to depiction of the drug and availability becomes a very important factor. How individuals in their childhood, adolescence and adulthood view individuals using, or their attitudes towards drugs can help determine initiation of use as evidenced in the previous section of this essay.

Section 9: Conclusion; summarise the essay and its key components and tie them together. Suggest that addiction is complex in your conclusion and needs further research as well as integration of the BPS model in order to gain some form of unification such as multifaceted approach to explaining what addiction is.

Journal Articles for the assignment please use those articles plus 6 books.

Biological Model

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135092/pdf/nihms-985499.pdf

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1511480?articleTools=true

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500839/pdf/nihms-416356.pdf

PSYCH_OPERANT CONDITIONING:

Psychology of addiction Shamil Wanigaratne https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S1476179306001327?token=DDAF78C82C869338C93E2DFB4DF3575BAED39375314B5D19F55EFD32DC17FDA861F1C60C2FED93FD0A6DFF98912CBACF&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220111173642

Can be used the criticise the learning model OC: Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction Kenneth Silverman

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755398/pdf/behavan00004-0079.pdf

Skinner - Operant Conditioning by Saul McLeod

https://online.uwl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-5749597-dt-content-rid-12297125_2/xid-12297125_2

What`s conditioned in conditioned place preference?

https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0165614713000059?token=ED9D7E17E7F8BB8ECD1EA53A773648BC1BD8B6A7F3738BB13F5BF71AF4050B97AF12BCA8ED9AA63165CB7CB5F9F39A40&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220111174804

Psych Classical Conditioning

  1. From Pavlov’s Dog to Rats Using Drugs https://kids.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frym.2019.00058
  2. Conditioning of Addiction https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278651814_Conditioning_of_Addiction
  3. Conditioning factors in drug abuse: Can they explain compulsion? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13699057_Conditioning_factors_in_drug_abuse_Can_they_explain_compulsion
  4. Drug craving and addiction: integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacology approaches https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0278584603000812?token=A92A89AF46B1B072C737020130CC9C95236CFD85B2E14C079D47067E74051E20C1437955D0734C8669924CD17B7549F0&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220111180001

Psych Cognitive

  1. Cognitive biases and addiction: an evolution in theory and method https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2001.961474.x?casa_token=L-gD_KWkL1UAAAAA%3AdSnveNHwCrnvqc_AzzxVr9ChgNqFxXW033HyY6evl3aA4rrL_qcf58bCzsBDAQ4hsxooZGUZRzyH8m8
  2. A cognitive model of drug-use behaviour: role of automatic and nonautomatic processes https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20970479_Tiffany_ST_A_cognitive_model_of_drug-use_behavior_role_of_automatic_and_nonautomatic_processes_Psychol_Rev_97_147-168
  3. In Search of a Comprehensive Model of Addiction https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237775386_In_Search_of_a_Comprehensive_Model_of_Addiction

Psych Social Learning Theory

  1. Social Learning and Addiction https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0166432820306537?token=2A2E9BD8628455D1311617E13381E7E2FFCD2560D710E03ED456A40CD13A71530AA2AAD3E4D6C9F9A7443A9503C6CABD&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220111181220
  2. Social Learning Theory and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Study https://www.jstor.org/stable/800775?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
  3. Self-medication or social learning? A comparison of models to predict early adolescent drinking

 

 https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0306460311003170?token=647BB09D79DA18548E5F79C2ADA15F90A1CA170A10CE2A4EE51575D184DEB7BB171C45F8BF426573A015B983AFDA7176&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220111181551

  1. Parental and Peer Influences on the Risk of Adolescent Drug Use https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7538514_Parental_and_Peer_Influences_on_the_Risk_of_Adolescent_Drug_Use
  2. Non-medical use of prescription stimulants for academic purposes among college students: A test of social learning theory https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0376871614010734?token=C0AA736F599B488F41B9AAAF9AC3AD1391410AE164B46046A873935AB4334499FC77175CFB3615235E7185A4A7ACA8D2&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220111181927
  1. Social Learning and Adolescent Deviance Abstention: Toward Understanding the Reasons for Initiating, Quitting, and Avoiding Drugs

https://www.jstor.org/stable/23365886?casa_token=NFjV0jkLCZ4AAAAA%3AUnuoDNOXYewb0-ur24euowH_xftcXAO8xDWL7pOvn4AXOVnAjJTXbcaohzfwDbrGWAaP6b3u3rBCxqqA0ggfGTGVpFE8OwOD6fRy06IAValk6mRmITmp&seq=1#metadata_info_tabc ontents

Bio-Psycho-Social Framework

  1. Brain disease or biopsychosocial model in addiction? Remembering the Vietnam Veteran Study http://www.psicothema.com/pdf/4481.pdf
  2. THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH TO ADDICTION Mark Griffiths https://online.uwl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-5749600-dt-content-rid-12297124_2/xid-12297124_2
  3. Negotiating the Relationship Between Addiction, Ethics, and Brain Science https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2910924/pdf/nihms167284.pdf

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