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Unit 13: Recruitment and Selection in Business
The aim of this unit is to introduce learners to recruitment and the importance of ensuring that the best people are selected to work in organisations. Learners will study selection and recruitment techniques and will set up, and take part in, a selection interview.
Recruiting the right people is the key to the success of many organisations. These organisations ensure that the processes and procedures involved in recruitment and selection meet their needs and are legal. In this unit, learners will develop an understanding of the impact of the regulatory framework on the recruitment process. Potential applicants may decide to apply for a post based on the quality of information that they receive. Details of the post will usually be the first communication they have with the organisation. P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources It is important that the organisation makes a good first impression on potential applicants to ensure that they attract sufficient applicants of the right calibre. Learners will develop their knowledge of the types of documentation used in an interview process.
A structured and planned selection procedure is crucial to the success of the selection process. The impression a business makes may determine an applicant’s decision to accept an offer of appointment. Staff conducting the interview will also be forming their impressions of the applicant. It is important that interviewers are well organised and prepared. They will need to be familiar with the details supplied by the short listed applicants, and use effective communication and listening skills during the interview. In this unit, learners will gain experience of the interview process through taking part in an interview. P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources
Organisations with effective recruitment and selection processes and practices in place are more likely to make successful staffing appointments. In competitive labour markets this is a major advantage that well organised-businesses will have over their competitors.
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1 Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
2 Understand the implications of the regulatory framework for the process of recruitment and selection
3 Be able to prepare documentation involved in the selection and recruitment process
4 Be able to participate in a selection interview.
Recruitment planning: reason for vacancy eg employee leaving, increased volume of business, different work, maternity cover, sickness; decision to recruit; internal recruitment; external sources of recruitment (use of job centres, consultants, recruitment agencies); cost and time considerations of external sourcing
Recruitment advertising: internal advertising; external advertising (choice of media, use of external agencies, format and type of advertisement, cost implications, legal considerations of recruitment advertising); methods of application, (eg letter, online, telephone)
Current UK and EU legislation: Sex Discrimination Act 1995/97; Race Relations Act 1992; Equal Pay Act 1970; Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005; European Working Time Directive; Employment Act 2002; national minimum wage; Data Protection Act 1998 (together with any future amendments) Know the processes involved in recruitment planning P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources
Ethical issues: asking candidates the same questions; interviewers not related to candidates; gender and ethnic balance on panels
P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources
Job description: purpose and standard formats; job title; department and location of post; broad terms of job; responsible to whom; responsibilities; scope of post; education and qualifications; name of compiler and approver; date of issue
Person specification: purpose and standard formats eg job title and reference number; location in management line; essential and desirable attributes; physical characteristics required; attainments and qualifications; previous experience; general intelligence; special aptitudes; temperament and personality; hobbies and interests; personal circumstances Application documentation: letter; application form; curriculum vitae Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
Pre-interview: selection criteria for short listing; application packs and information for candidates; references; types of interview (group, individual, team, panel, telephone, multi-stage); tasks and tests used to complement the interview process eg occupational preference tests, attainment tests, aptitude tests, psychometric tests; use of specialists in the interview; Assessment and interview questions; procedure for informing candidates of interview decisions
Interview: interview protocol; confidentiality; fairness; interview environment; agreed questions; checking of personal information; interview checklist; control of interview; decision criteria and documentation; communicating the decision to candidates; communication and listening skills; body language; questioning techniques; barriers to communication; analysing and summarising Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
Post interview: informing candidates; making a job offer; verbal/non-verbal offers; contents of job offer, eg start date, wage or salary rate, hours of work, holiday entitlements; other conditions eg references, medical test, passing specific qualifications; expense claims; candidate’s feedback; taking up and checking references; police and/or medical checks; rejection of unsuccessful candidates
In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.
Assessment and grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:
To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:
To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:
P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources [CT]
P2 explain the impact of the legal and regulatory framework on recruitment and selection activities [IE]
P3 prepare the documents used in selection and recruitment activities [CT]
M1 compare the purposes of the different documents used in the selection and recruitment process of a given organisation
D1 evaluate the usefulness of the documents in the interview pack for a given organisation, in facilitating the interview process
P4 plan to take part in a selection interview [SM, RL]
M2 analyse your contribution to the selection process in a given situation.
D2 evaluate your experience of planning and participating in the recruitment and selection process.
P5 take part in a selection interview. [TW, EP]
PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills applicable in the pass criteria. It identifies opportunities for learners to demonstrate effective application of the referenced elements of the skills.
IE – independent enquirers
CT – creative thinkers
RL – reflective learners
TW – team workers
SM – self-managers
EP – effective participators
This unit is designed to be delivered and assessed using a practical programme where learners need to set up interviews, from the job analysis stage right through to selecting a suitable candidate. Learners will prepare documents to be used at interviews which will give them the opportunity to practise appraising CVs, personal statements and letters of application, and completing application forms. Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
In this unit there is an emphasis on the importance of all types of communication including non-written communication, body language, appearance, verbal communication, face-to-face communication and electronic communication. Tutors will need to spend time discussing in order to develop good practice.
The importance of equal opportunities to an organisation, allowing it to select recruits from the broadest possible range of potential talent should be stressed. The implications for individuals and society of confronting prejudice, lessening social exclusion, widening participation and recognising ability and potential will be key and sensitive subjects for many learners. Providing information on, and allowing discussion about, legal and social issues concerning race, gender, disability, religion, age and other situations where discrimination, either positive or negative, may occur will help learners to develop awareness of and sensitivity to employee and employer standpoints.
Learners need to have a broad understanding of the regulatory framework involved in recruitment and selection. However learners will not need detailed knowledge of the legislation as this is covered in other units. They should be aware of the key implications of the relevant legislation and the ethical issues involved in recruiting and selecting staff. P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources
Learners’ own experiences should be called on, although younger learners may be working in situations with informal employment practices. Learning should take account of learner experiences while indicating professionally appropriate practice. Textbook case studies will be useful but there will be current cases in the media revolving around employment issues and legislation, which should enable practical application of the theory. The websites of large employers such as Asda, Boots, Sainsbury’s and Tesco are good sources of sample material and provide examples of current practice where comparative practices are relatively simple to access.
The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments.
The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit. Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment
Introduction to unit and structure of the programme
Introduction to recruitment and selection and its importance to organisations
Pair work on the role of recruitment and selection for a range of organisations. This will be supported by some tutor input on technical topics. Learners:
l investigate recruitment planning from case study materials or from supportive organisations
l identify the reasons for planning the required workforce in organisations
l gather information on recruitment advertising and the legal aspects of advertising for employees There may still be formal input during group work
Assignment 1: Recruitment
l investigate and collect job descriptions
l analyse job descriptions and their content
l investigate and collect person specifications
l analyse person specifications and their content
l investigate and collect application documentation
l analyse application documentation and its content
l prepare own CV
l complete application documentation
There may still be formal input during group work
Presentations on the selection interview processes
l identify pre-interview material
l assess the purpose of pre-interview material in specific instances
l prepare pre-interview material for the selection process
l assess the purpose of interview materials and activities in specific instances
l prepare interview material for the selection process
l plan interviews for job vacancies
l take part in selection interviews
l identify post-interview material
l assess the purpose of post-interview material in specific instances
l prepare post-interview material from the selection process
l identify the range of legislation that applies to selection interviews and their conduct
l assess the impact of legislation that applies to selection interviews and their conduct Identify the range of ethical issues that apply to selection interviews and their conduct
Assignment 2: Selection
Supervised assignment work
Non-supervised study time and completion of assignments
For P1, learners will need to understand the reasons why vacancies occur, and the factors which influence organisations to recruit. Vacancies may be filled internally or externally. External sources, if used will have time and cost implications. The vacancy may be advertised internally or externally, and for external advertising, the choice of media is important. The organisations selected, could link to P3, and the evidence for P1 could be in the form of an introductory planning sheet. Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
For P2, learners will explain the key legal and ethical requirements of selection interviews. This could be done by providing a concise, but detailed guide for interviewers.
For P3, learners will prepare the documentation for an identified vacancy. This will encompass a job advert, job description and person specification. The completion of these three documents to an appropriate standard will provide the evidence for this criterion.
For P4, learners will plan all aspects of their interview(s) for P5.
For P5, learners should adopt the role of either an interviewee or an interviewer in a mock selection interview. Learners should demonstrate through role play that they have prepared for the interview. They should have the necessary documentation available and be able to conduct the proceedings. Roles can then be reversed to give all learners the opportunity to see the recruitment process from the perspectives of both the applicant and the interviewer. Evidence is likely to come from a copy of the documentation and a witness statement from the assessor.
For M1, learners must be able to identify the documents used in the three stages of the selection process. They should know the purpose of the key documents. They should be able to explain the purpose of the information that the completed documents will provide for the interviewers. They should be able to draw comparisons between the purposes of appropriate documents.
For M2, learners must show that they can prepare for and perform in a role-play situation. Learners should ensure that an application pack is prepared and that all the necessary documentation is provided for the interviewee and the interviewers. The interview should be organised and conducted in a professional manner. Observers will be looking for evidence that the participants have prepared for the interview. This can be judged by observing how the learners organise and manage the sequence of the interview, the ability of the participants to ask appropriate questions, the quality of their participation and whether they have used communications and listening skills to good effect. Evidence will come from supporting documentation such as interview questions that the interviewers and interviewees have prepared. The evidence will be supported by a witness statement on the role play of each participant. In addition the learner must prepare an analysis of their contribution.
For D1, learners must make judgements on the usefulness of documents that they have collated in the interview pack. This will be informed by a mix of theory and practice. They must be able to demonstrate that they are able to assess the usefulness of documents that belong to a real organisation or that they have used in the role play exercise. In what ways did the documentation contribute to the organisation, management and conduct of the interview and the process of making a selection decision? Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
For D2, learners must be able to demonstrate that they can critically reflect on their experience and draw lessons from it. Evidence will require an evaluation of the role play and this should be linked to the feedback in the witness statement. Learners must also be able to critically evaluate their experiences of planning stages of the interview
Programme of suggested assignments
The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the pass, merit and distinction criteria in the grading grid. This is for guidance and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt any Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources.
P1, P2, P5, M1, D1
Advertising and preparing documents for a job role.
Newspaper or Magazine advert for job role.
P3, P4, M2, D2
Applying and being interviewed for a job.
This unit forms part of the BTEC Business sector suite. This unit has particular links with the following unit titles in the Business suite:
The Business Environment
Aspects of Employment Law
Development Planning for a Career in Business
Human Resource Management in Business.
This unit links to the Level 3 National Occupational Standards for Management and Leadership, particularly Unit D3.
This unit also links to the National Occupational Standards in Human Resources, particularly Units HR15 and HR16. It also links with the following units of the Level 3 National Occupational Standards in Personnel:
l Unit P31: Operate recruitment procedures
l Unit P32: Operate selection procedures.
For this unit learners should have access to a suitable business teaching environment with access to the internet to do research. Tutors may consider building a bank of resource materials to ensure there is a sufficient supply of relevant information across a range of business types and sectors. P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources. Learners can generate evidence from a work placement or from work experience. Other learners may have access to information relating to family owned and run businesses Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
Centres should develop links with local businesses. Many businesses and chambers of commerce want to promote local business so are often willing to provide work placements, visit opportunities, information about businesses and the local business context, and visiting speakers.
www.businessbritainuk.co.uk/ provides information about business in Britain and has extensive links to other business and business news sites.
www.fsb.org.uk The Federation of Small Businesses provides information, support and guidance about small businesses in the UK.
Many businesses provide information about themselves. For example, Unilever, can be found at:
Bartol K M and Martin D C – Management (Irwin, 2001) ISBN 0072515015
Edenborough R – Effective Interviewing: A Handbook of Skills and Techniques (Kogan Page, 2002) ISBN 0749437553
Fowler A – Writing Job Descriptions (Management Shapers) (CIPD, 2000) ISBN 0852928661 Gillespie A – Business in Action (Hodder Arnold, 2002) ISBN 0340848200
Grout J and Perrin S – Recruiting Excellence: An Insider’s Guide to Sourcing Top Talent (McGraw Hill, 2002) ISBN 0077099680
Kay F, Guinness H and Stevens N – Making Management Simple (How to Books, 2003) ISBN 1857038118 Ridderstrale J and Nordstrom K – Funky Business (FT Prentice Hall, 2001) ISBN 0273659073 Know the processes involved in recruitment planning
Personnel Today (Reed Business Information) is a useful journal which often has up-to-date and relevant articles on selection and recruitment practice.
Quality newspapers – especially the business sections
www.bbc.co.uk/business BBC Business website www.bbc.co.uk/learning/subjects/business_studies.shtml A changing bank of learning resources and up-to-date
case studies. This site also has links to other useful sites
www.bbc.co.uk/news BBC News website
www.bized.co.uk Includes a number of pertinent case studies
www.careers-in-business.com Information on a variety of business careers
www.cipd.co.uk Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
www.direct.gov.uk Gateway to public services
www.lsda.org.uk Learning and Skills Development Agency
www.learnthings.co.uk Providers of interactive digital resources
www.thetimes100.co.uk Free materials and case studies
The table below identifies the opportunities for personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) that have been included within the pass assessment criteria of this unit.
When learners are …
investigating jobs advertised by business organisations
generating ideas about advertisements, documentation and questions
reflecting on the questions to ask and answer at interview
working with others in a group environment
organising time and resources and prioritising actions whether working on their own or in a group
taking part in group activities, working with colleagues, supervisors and managers.
Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.
planning and carrying out research into the different types of job role
looking at how different qualifications and skills fit together in job roles to ensure business purposes are met adapting their skills as circumstances change
setting goals with success criteria inviting feedback on their own work and dealing positively with praise, setbacks and criticism evaluating their experiences and learning to inform progress
working in a group to discuss ideas and prepare materials for presentations taking responsibility for their own role managing activities to reach agreements and achieve results
seeking out challenges or new responsibilities and showing flexibility when priorities change dealing with competing pressures, including personal and work-related demands responding positively to change, seeking advice and support when needed
ICT – Use ICT systems
Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs
researching organisations and their jobs
Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system they have used
tabulating information about organisations/jobs
ICT – Find and select information
Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task
finding illustrative materials for presentations and tabulations about organisations creating diagrams, presentations and tabulations about the functional areas in businesses
Access, search for, select and use ICT-based information and evaluate its fitness for purpose
exploring, extracting and assessing the relevance of information from websites about business organisations and job roles
ICT – Develop, present and communicate information
Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose including:
l text and tables
bringing together a variety of materials gathered through research preparing information to present to others about job roles
Bring together information to suit content and purpose
Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience
Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information
Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists
communicating with other members of a group
Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations
using numerical data in relation to business an job roles
Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it
Select and apply a range of skills to find solutions
Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage
Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations
Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications
Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts
carrying out work investigating organisations and their job roles working with others in investigating businesses and job roles (employees, colleagues, teachers, class mates) attending team meetings making presentations about job roles. Know the processes involved in recruitment planning. P1 Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources
Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions
reading about jobs reading about organisations to obtain data to compare jobs
Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively
writing materials to provide information about jobs producing labelled charts and diagrams showing the structure of organisations and the links between sections within organisations.
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