Unit 5: Accounting Principles

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Unit 5: Accounting Principles

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Accounting principles are a crucial part of the accounting course and are included in the initial introductory part of the course. Accounting principles are considered accounting’s fundamental principles. Accounting principles are the broad elementary propositions that accountants use to generate financial statements. The following are some principles of accounting:

  • Matching principles
  • Costs principles
  • Full disclosure principles
  • Assumption of an economic entity
  • Going concern assumption
  • Principles of revenue recognition

Accounting management is an occupation which associates the decision-making for management, performance and planning systems of management. The accountants of management present expertise in control and financial reporting to aid management in the implementation and formulation of the strategy of a company by offering suitable information on finance and implementation in terms of accounts administration.

The entire purpose of Unit 5: Accounting Principles is to recognise the basic principles of accounting that reinforce the operation of finance and associate sustainable and good decision-making in the organisation. The learners will prepare a practical and theoretical recognition of a variety of management and financial accounting techniques.

At the end of this unit, the learners would be eligible to help colleagues that are senior in examining and creating budgets, to draw basic statements of finance and ratios of finance to understand performance. The learners will also recognise the broad features of accountancy, sustainability and transparency, ethics, and increment in basic skills and knowledge which make the learners able to cultivate the next level of the study.

Learning Outcomes of Unit 5 Accounting Principles

At the end of the unit, the learner would be able to cater for the following outcomes of the unit.

LO1 Analyse the purposes and context of accounting.

LO2 Construct the fundamental statements of finance for small businesses and unincorporated companies according to the principles of accounting, standards and conventions.

LO3 Understand the financial statements.

LO4 Construct a budget for control, decision making and planning through spreadsheets.

Crucial contents in Unit 5: Accounting Principles


LO1 Analyse the purposes and context of accounting.

Accounting in an organisation:

  • Diverse accounting branches for instance auditing, tax, financial forensic accounting, auditing and Management.
  • Opportunities for a career in responsibilities and goals and accounting for instance account assistance, account clerk, and qualified accountant.
  • Responsibilities in commercial finance for example business controller, Global Business service and pricing professionals, e.g. report to report (R2R) professionals and purchase-to-pay (P2P) professionals.
  • Skills needed for the finance and accountant positions for example integrity, numerical skills, customer service, problem-solving, and negotiation.
  • Key competence and skills for the roles of accountant for example supplier reconciliations, certifying accounts that are up to date, purchase and sale ledger management, recording receive payments, and input of invoices sales in a system of accounts.
  • Uses and users of financial information.
  • Correlation between finance functions and accounting of different organisation areas and increment in the difficult environment of operation.

Purpose and context of Management and financial accounting:

  • The scope and purpose of accounting include reporting recording and examining the information to make a decision.
  • The character of new information and supporting technology to associate decision-making and accounting.
  • Accounting information management includes systems, for example, job costing, inventory management, and cost accounting.
  • The advantages (accuracy, streamlining, reporting), limitations and risks (loss of data by power outages, security Threats) of accounting information management.
  • Delivering financial information in a timely, accurate, reliable and persuasive manner to satisfy the requirements of external and internal entities.
  • Accounting in a complex increment and changing environment of business very fast, for example, accountability and regulation increment, the character of International Financial report standards IFRS, reputation, governance, risk management and sustainability.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of outs coding services of accounting and shared service centres.

LO2 Construct the fundamental statements of finance for small businesses and unincorporated companies according to the principles of accounting, standards and conventions.

Concepts of accounting:

The concepts of accounting are considered the foundation of all statements of finance.

Revenue items and capital:

  • Classification of capital income expenditure and revenue.
  • Production of fundamental financial statements creation of loss and profit statements the sheet of balance for small organisations from a provided trial balance.
  • Diverse types of income statements for partnership-sold traders and unable-for-profit organisations.
  • Required adjustments for prepayments, accruals, depreciation, and bad debts importance of digital software used for preparation and accountability of financial statements such as Xero, QuickBooks, and sage.

LO3 Understand the financial statements.

Purpose and significance of financial statement analysis:

Communication, financial intentions and positions with a range of stakeholders.

Analysing ratios:

  • Evaluate liquidity, investment ratio, profitability and efficiency with the help of provided data.
  • To use evaluated ratios for the calculation of organisational performance.
  • Critique and apply Benchmarks that are relatable and include competitors, internal and sector, and time series.

 Ratio limitation and analysis:

  • The analysis of ratio is considered as evaluating and calculating means of performance in an organisation, for example, the qualitative or measures of non-financial usage. The ratio limitations usage as a measurement tool for performance.
  • The correlation between ratios.

Purpose and significance of financial statement analysis:

  • The analysis and interpretation of the statement of finance in an environment of business. 

    Unit 5: Accounting Principles

  • Interpretation of relationship among financial statement elements liquidity, efficient resources usage, profitability and financial position.
  • Interpretation of financial statement for getting the sustainable performance and key performance indicators.
  • Financial statement applications are diverse in the diverse context of Business and the importance of delivering financial statements to the end user.

LO4 Construct a budget for control, decision making and planning through spreadsheets.

Reason and nature of budgeting:

  • Budget is considered the fundamental tool for account management.
  • Reasons and definitions of organisation budget usage.
  • Budgeting process stages, functional and master budgets.
  • Remedial actions to tell the decision-making and resource allocation.

Budgetary control and preparation of budget:

  • Significance, limitations and role in controlling the action of budget.
  • The standard budget aspects and budget categories include zero, fixed, flexible-based, rolling, and variance analysis.
  • The guidelines step by step for the creation of a cash budget.

 Spreadsheet production:

  • The information of number and others needed for each and the wave on which should be heard according to the requirement.
  • Use of techniques and steps taken to organise added and enter the data and numerical.
  • Data analysis and ritual data representation with the help of bar chart graphs and pie charts.
  • Inserting data spreadsheet into the documents of the word.

The assessment criteria of the unit are comprised of the following questions that are part of learning outcomes and asked in the form of an assignment to the students.

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LO1 Analyse the purposes and context of accounting.

1.1 Analyse the reasons for accounting in an organisation.

1.2 Evaluate the functions of accounting within the company in terms of ethical constants and regulations.

1.3 Analyse the purpose and contact of the functions of accounting that meet societal organisational and stakeholder requirements and expectations.

1.4 Analyse critically the responsibility of accounting in telling that decision-making to meet stakeholder, societal and organisational requirements within the difficult environment of operation.

LO2 Construct the fundamental statements of finance for small businesses and unincorporated companies according to the principles of accounting, standards and conventions.

2.1 Create the statement of finance with the help of provided trial balance for partnership sole traders and non-profitable organisations to meet the principles of accounting, standards and conventions.

2.2 Present the financial statement with the help of appropriate adjustments, screw-making and trial balance.

2.3 Critically examine the financial statement to test the performance of the organisation with the use of Benchmarks and a variety of measures to form a certified computer.

LO3 Understand the financial statements.

3.1 Differentiate the organisation`s performance over time by using the ratio of finance.

3.2 Provide and evaluate the ratio of Financing from the final accounts set.

3.3 Analyse the organisation`s performance after passing some time through using the financial ratios in terms of the relatable benchmark.

LO4 Construct a budget for control, decision making and planning through spreadsheets.

4.1 Create the cash budget with the help of provided data from the organisation that uses a spreadsheet.

4.2 Discuss the limitations and advantages of budgetary planning, budgets and control for a company.

4.3 Recognise the corrective activities of problems exposed by budgetary planning and reinforced them for the effective decision-making of the organisation.

4.4 Verify the solutions of rigidity control and their influence on the decision-making of the organisation to satisfy the effective and efficient sources of deployment.

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